Cut'n'Paste

We are two young designers from Greece and we create wall decals and posters. The Cosmos, science, sci-fi, philosophy and fine arts are the sources of our inspiration. Feel free to visit our ETSY shops at http://www.cutnpasteshop.etsy.com for wall decals and http://www.frameitposters.etsy.com or http://www.Posterium.etsy.com for wall posters
I never read,
I just look 
at pictures
Andy Warhol’s Quote large poster replica by Frame(it) posters

I never read,

I just look

at pictures

Andy Warhol’s Quote large poster replica by Frame(it) posters

artificial-apnea:

every week my Bio teacher posts a new biology joke on our google site
this one made me cry
my teacher is a massive dork

artificial-apnea:

every week my Bio teacher posts a new biology joke on our google site

this one made me cry

my teacher is a massive dork

(via shychemist)

designcloud:

The Abyss Table by Duffy London

This mesmerising table was first conceived by Christopher Duffy — and ultimately refined by the team at Duffy London — to represent a 3D geological map of an ocean floor. The Abyss Table makes use of contour lines, which are often used to denote topography in terrain maps, to render an island chain and ocean abyss.

Contour lines can be thought of as workaround for the 2D limitations of paper maps, but Duffy instead relished these simplifications which have become iconic imagery for the field of cartography. He incorporates layers of wood to represent the land, and panes of glass for the water, in order to produce a 3 dimensional geographical model.

(via Homeli)

I need this!

(via astrogasmic)

journeytoenglisheducation:

brains-and-bodies:

fuckyeah-nerdery:

discodick:

mindblowingscience:

pickledpennies:

m00nchaser:

If bees become extinct we will have exactly 4 YEARS to live on this planet. I don’t understand how “not giving a fuck” is more important than your life…

okay, I have a thing to say about this. I’m no expert on bees, but I am a biologist (and entomologist) so I think there is something I can contribute that’ll be of worth.

I agree entirely with the sentiment that we must protect honeybees. Obviously they are massively important for biodiversity, as well as pollinating food crops for humans. There is no doubt that if all the honeybees in the world were to vanish in a day that the consequences would be dire.

However, I disagree that the main cause for concern regarding honeybee death is the use of Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I’d be very interested to read a research paper that says ‘GM crops have killed millions of honeybees’, if indeed such a paper exists because in all honesty I find it highly unlikely that this is a true statement.

Let’s start with some facts about GM crops:

1. The development of GM crops is a highly regulated process, bound by strict country-specific legislature. A great number of trials are carried out long before commercial planting of a GM crop is even considered. It is these trials, and accompanying laboratory studies, that ensure a GM crop is safe to non-target organisms (such as honeybees) by investigating direct and indirect effects (Nap et al. 2003).

2. Crops that are genetically modified to express insecticidal proteins (for crop pest control) have a high level of specificity. This means that the insecticidal proteins being produced by the GM plant will only affect a narrow range of insect groups because of the chemical properties of the protein. For example, GM crops expressing insecticidal proteins sourced from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) will only target some Lepidopteran pests (caterpillars; Romeis et al. 2006). Furthermore, a recent meta-analysis of the literature found that GM Bt crops do not negatively affect the survival of adult honeybees or their larvae (Duan et al. 2008).

3. GM crops can be tailored such that the novel gene is expressed only in particular parts of the plant. For example, GM Bt rice plants express the toxin in the stems but not the grains (Datta et al. 1998). This technique means that gene expression can be excluded from the flowers/pollen of the crop plant, so that bees and other pollinators would not be affected. Neat, huh?

So those are a token few reasons why GM crops are safer than perhaps many people believe (as the result of a lot of questionable, non-scientific articles). To come back to our main point about honeybee death, I would like to briefly mention a few alternative explanations for the recent decline in honeybee populations. These are as follows:

1. Many bees have died as the result of broad-spectrum insecticide use. These are pesticides that lack specificity, and can be harmful to non-target organisms. Neonicotinoids are a well-studied example of this (Decourtye & Devillers, 2010). Not to worry, though, because many broad-spectrum pesticides including neonics are well on their way out. Indeed, the EU recently banned a large cohort of neonic pesticides. This is still a topic of controversy, mind (Goulson, 2013).

2. Many bees have died as the result of Varroa mite infestation. Imagine you’ve been bitten by several ticks, except those ticks are the size of dinner plates. That gives you an idea of the severity of a Varroa mite infestation on a single developing bee. The parasitisation of bees by Varroa mites and other parasites is often accompanied by disease transmission. This can result in colonies dying within two years after infestation (Johnson, 2011).

3. Many bees have died as the result of ‘colony collapse disorder’.  This is a phrase that has popped up a lot recently, and is basically an umbrella term for the various causes of bee death including parasite infestation, disease transmission, environmental stresses, and management stresses such as poor nutrition (Johnson, 2011). Colony collapse has been attributed to broad-spectrum pesticide use in some instances. However, it is has still been observed in countries where broad-spectrum pesticides have been withdrawn (in the EU, like I mentioned earlier; Johnson, 2011).

So those are my main points. Please excuse the bullet-point nature of this; I was trying to keep it fairly short. Not sure I managed that haha. But anyway, my take-home message is that GM crops are not the enemy when it comes to honeybee decline. If anything, bees are at much greater danger from the use of broad-spectrum pesticides and from parasites and diseases. Using GM can even help to alleviate some of the problems associated with broad-spectrum pesticides, as they greatly reduce the need to apply such chemicals (Romeis et al. 2006).

A finishing note: Do your homework. Go on google scholar and read some of the literature, making sure it is recent (within the past 10-15 years). Literature reviews are a great way to find out what the consensus is on any given topic. Don’t use popular media as your main source of information where science is concerned; they tend to favour scandal and exaggeration. You want to know what’s really going on? Check out some research articles and see for yourself.

Thanks for sticking it through to the end of this impromptu mini-essay! —Alice

References:

Datta, K., Vasquez, A., Tu, J., Torrizo, L., Alam, M. F., Oliva, N., Abrigo, E., Khush, G. S., & Datta, S. K. (1998). Constitutive and tissue-specific differential expression of the cryIA (b) gene in transgenic rice plants conferring resistance to rice insect pest. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97(1-2), 20-30.

Decourtye, A., & Devillers, J. (2010). Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to bees. In Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (pp. 85-95). Springer New York.

Duan, J. J., Marvier, M., Huesing, J., Dively, G., & Huang, Z. Y. (2008). A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS One, 3(1), e1415.

Goulson, D. (2013). Neonicotinoids and bees: What’s all the buzz?. Significance, 10(3), 6-11.

Johnson, R. (2011). Honey bee colony collapse disorder. DIANE Publishing.

Nap, J. P., Metz, P. L., Escaler, M., & Conner, A. J. (2003). The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. The Plant Journal, 33(1), 1-18.

Romeis, J., Meissle, M., & Bigler, F. (2006). Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control. Nature biotechnology, 24(1), 63-71.

This commentary is SO important. Succinct and with proper sourcing; beautiful.

It infuriates me when people blame GMO for everything without actually examining the evidence.

Fucker, did you just compile and post a summarised university research paper in your leisure time? Fuck you. *flips table in frustration of assignment writing inadequacies* 

GODDAMN THEY EVEN PROVIDED REFERENCES.

Providing references should be mandatory. Go Alice!

*Snifs* This… is the most… BEAUTIFUL… post I have… ever… seen on Tumblr! The references! The beautiful references!

(Source: antinwo, via shychemist)

pennyfornasa:

On June 30, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft, carrying the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, arrived at Saturn. Today Cassini celebrates 10 years exploring the Saturn system. Originally intended for a four-year primary mission, Cassini has received three extensions allowing the spacecraft to collect 514 GB of science data and 332,000 stunning images of the planet, its rings and moons.Below is a list compiled by NASA of Cassini’s Top 10 discoveries and accomplishments: — The Huygens probe makes first landing on a moon in the outer Solar System (Titan) — Discovery of active, icy plumes on the Saturnian moon Enceladus — Saturn’s rings revealed as active and dynamic — a laboratory for how planets form — Titan revealed as an Earth-like world with rain, rivers, lakes and seas — Studies of Saturn’s great northern storm of 2010-2011 — Studies reveal radio-wave patterns are not tied to Saturn’s interior rotation, as previously thought — Vertical structures in the rings imaged for the first time — Study of prebiotic chemistry on Titan — Mystery of the dual, bright-dark surface of the moon Iapetus solved — First complete view of the north polar hexagon and discovery of giant hurricanes at both of Saturn’s poles Read more: Cassini’s 10 Years At Saturn: http://go.nasa.gov/1o3EzJZ Cassini’s Top 10 Discoveries: http://go.nasa.gov/1m1Skuf  Check out Cassini’s Top Images: http://go.nasa.gov/1veUSF3 Download The Infographic: http://go.nasa.gov/1wxXSyW Image Credit: NASA

pennyfornasa:

On June 30, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft, carrying the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, arrived at Saturn. Today Cassini celebrates 10 years exploring the Saturn system. Originally intended for a four-year primary mission, Cassini has received three extensions allowing the spacecraft to collect 514 GB of science data and 332,000 stunning images of the planet, its rings and moons.

Below is a list compiled by NASA of Cassini’s Top 10 discoveries and accomplishments:
— The Huygens probe makes first landing on a moon in the outer Solar System (Titan)
— Discovery of active, icy plumes on the Saturnian moon Enceladus
— Saturn’s rings revealed as active and dynamic — a laboratory for how planets form
— Titan revealed as an Earth-like world with rain, rivers, lakes and seas
— Studies of Saturn’s great northern storm of 2010-2011
— Studies reveal radio-wave patterns are not tied to Saturn’s interior rotation, as previously thought
— Vertical structures in the rings imaged for the first time
— Study of prebiotic chemistry on Titan
— Mystery of the dual, bright-dark surface of the moon Iapetus solved
— First complete view of the north polar hexagon and discovery of giant hurricanes at both of Saturn’s poles

Read more:
Cassini’s 10 Years At Saturn: http://go.nasa.gov/1o3EzJZ
Cassini’s Top 10 Discoveries: http://go.nasa.gov/1m1Skuf
Check out Cassini’s Top Images: http://go.nasa.gov/1veUSF3
Download The Infographic: http://go.nasa.gov/1wxXSyW

Image Credit: NASA

(via thenewenlightenmentage)